Alternativer FastCGI Process Manager für den Apache httpd unter CentOS 7.x

Bild: PHP-FPM Logo Mit PHP-FPM kann ein alternativer FastCGI Process Manager (FastCGI-Implementierung) beim Apache Webserver verwendet werden, um z.B. die PHP-Verarbeitungs erheblich zu beschleunigen und somit die Antwortzeiten des Webservers signifikant zu verbessern. PHP-FPM ist seit der PHP Version 5.3.3 fest in PHP integriert. PHP-FPM startet dazu mehrere PHP-Interpreter-Prozesse, die ständig im Hintergrund laufen um auf Anfragen zu warten. Eingehende Requests nimmt er vom Apache-Webserver Apache HTTP Server entgegen und teilt dies dann den bereitstehenden Prozessen des PHP-Interpreter zu.

Grundsätzlich gibt es drei Varianten, wie die Kommunikation zwischen dem WEB-Server Apache HTTP Server und dem PHP realisiert werden kann:

  • mod_php Die wohl am meist verbreitete PHP Implementierung innerhalb des Apache HTTP Servers.
  • mod_fcgid Alternativ zur Nutzung des PHP-Moduls mod_php kann auch CGI/FastCGI vom Apache HTTP Server an eigens gestartete externen Prozess delegiert werden.
  • php-fpm Bei der dritten Variante mit Verwendung von FPM/FastCGI übergibt der Apache HTTP Server Anfragen an einen externen separat laufenden Dienstes/Daemon. Dadurch ergeben sich folgende (zusätzliche) Vorteile:
    • Die PHP Prozesse müssen nicht mehr zwingend in der gleichen Umgebung wie der Webserver laufen; bzw. im einfachsten Fall wird der PHP-FPMD-Daemon mit anderen User- und Gruppenrechten betrieben als der WEB-Server selbst.
    • Die PHP-FPM Prozesse können unabhängig vom Webserver neu gestartet werden. Somit werden keinen ankommende Clientprozesse des Apache-Webservers beim Neustart des PHP-FPM-Daemon getrennt und gehen somit nicht verloren.
    • Durch geschickte Konfiguration des PHP-FPM-Daemon können getrennte und unterschiedliche Pools definiert werden. Bei der Konfiguration dieser Pools kann definiert werden, mit welchen User- und Gruppenrechten der bzw. die Prozesse laufen sollen und bei Bedarf können die PHP-FPM-Prozesse auch in eigenen chroot-Umgebungen laufen. Auch können unterschiedliche PHP-Einstellungen mit Hilfe von getrennten php.ini Dateien festgelegt werden. Angesprochen werden diese Pools entweder über einen UNIX Domain Socket bzw. über unterschiedliche Ports.
    • Nicht mehr benötigte PHP-FPM-Prozesse können automatisiert beendet werden, wenn diese nicht mehr benötigt werden sollten.
    • Durch Verwendung der Option request_slowlog_timeout kann definiert werden, wie lange max. auf einen Antwort eines Anfrage gewartet werden soll. Wir dieser Wert überschritten, wird automatisch ein backtrace der Anfrage in eine LOG-Datei geschrieben.
    • Durch Verwendung des alternativer FastCGI Process Managers PHP-FPM kann der Apache HTTP Server im event-Mode statt dem standardmässigen prefork-Mode betrieben werden. Dadurch kann der Durchsatz des webservers erheblich verbessert werden.

Nachfolgend wird in diesem Kapitel beschrieben, wie der PHP-FPM-Daemon installiert, eingerichtet und an den Apache Webserver angebunden werden kann.

Die Installation des FastCGI Process Managers PHP-FPM erfolgt mit Hilfe des Paketmanager Tools YUM. Verwendet man die Standard-PHP-Installation unter CentOS 7 ist das Paket php-fpm aus dem Base-Repository zu installieren.

 # yum install php-fpm -y 

Im weiteren werden wir uns die Installation des zugehörigen Daemon bei Verwendung von PHP 7.0 aus dem Repository IUS betrachten.

 # yum install php70u-fpm

Was uns das Paket php70u-fpm alles mit ins System bringt, zeigt uns der Befehl rpm mit der Option -qil.

 # rpm -qil php70u-fpm
Name        : php70u-fpm
Version     : 7.0.21
Release     : 1.ius.centos7
Architecture: x86_64
Install Date: Fri 21 Jul 2017 10:24:28 PM CEST
Group       : Development/Languages
Size        : 4759319
License     : PHP and Zend and BSD and MIT and ASL 1.0
Signature   : DSA/SHA1, Wed 19 Jul 2017 06:23:42 AM CEST, Key ID da221cdf9cd4953f
Source RPM  : php70u-7.0.21-1.ius.centos7.src.rpm
Build Date  : Thu 06 Jul 2017 04:28:31 PM CEST
Build Host  : 606890-build04.rpmdev.rackspace.com
Relocations : (not relocatable)
URL         : http://www.php.net/
Summary     : PHP FastCGI Process Manager
Description :
PHP-FPM (FastCGI Process Manager) is an alternative PHP FastCGI
implementation with some additional features useful for sites of
any size, especially busier sites.
/etc/logrotate.d/php-fpm
/etc/php-fpm.conf
/etc/php-fpm.d
/etc/php-fpm.d/www.conf
/etc/systemd/system/php-fpm.service.d
/run/php-fpm
/usr/lib/systemd/system/php-fpm.service
/usr/lib/tmpfiles.d/php-fpm.conf
/usr/sbin/php-fpm
/usr/share/doc/php70u-fpm-7.0.21
/usr/share/doc/php70u-fpm-7.0.21/php-fpm.conf.default
/usr/share/doc/php70u-fpm-7.0.21/www.conf.default
/usr/share/fpm
/usr/share/fpm/status.html
/usr/share/licenses/php70u-fpm-7.0.21
/usr/share/licenses/php70u-fpm-7.0.21/fpm_LICENSE
/usr/share/man/man8/php-fpm.8.gz
/var/lib/php/fpm
/var/lib/php/fpm/opcache
/var/lib/php/fpm/session
/var/lib/php/fpm/wsdlcache
/var/log/php-fpm

Daemon

Die Konfiguration des Daemon erfolgt über die Konfigurationsdatei /etc/php-fpm.conf .

 # vim /etc/php-fpm.conf
/etc/php-fpm.conf
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
; FPM Configuration ;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
 
; All relative paths in this configuration file are relative to PHP's install
; prefix.
 
; Include one or more files. If glob(3) exists, it is used to include a bunch of
; files from a glob(3) pattern. This directive can be used everywhere in the
; file.
include=/etc/php-fpm.d/*.conf
 
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
; Global Options ;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
 
[global]
; Pid file
; Default Value: none
pid = /run/php-fpm/php-fpm.pid
 
; Error log file
; If it's set to "syslog", log is sent to syslogd instead of being written
; in a local file.
; Default Value: /var/log/php-fpm.log
error_log = /var/log/php-fpm/error.log
 
; syslog_facility is used to specify what type of program is logging the
; message. This lets syslogd specify that messages from different facilities
; will be handled differently.
; See syslog(3) for possible values (ex daemon equiv LOG_DAEMON)
; Default Value: daemon
;syslog.facility = daemon
 
; syslog_ident is prepended to every message. If you have multiple FPM
; instances running on the same server, you can change the default value
; which must suit common needs.
; Default Value: php-fpm
;syslog.ident = php-fpm
 
; Log level
; Possible Values: alert, error, warning, notice, debug
; Default Value: notice
;log_level = notice
 
; If this number of child processes exit with SIGSEGV or SIGBUS within the time
; interval set by emergency_restart_interval then FPM will restart. A value
; of '0' means 'Off'.
; Default Value: 0
;emergency_restart_threshold = 0
 
; Interval of time used by emergency_restart_interval to determine when 
; a graceful restart will be initiated.  This can be useful to work around
; accidental corruptions in an accelerator's shared memory.
; Available Units: s(econds), m(inutes), h(ours), or d(ays)
; Default Unit: seconds
; Default Value: 0
;emergency_restart_interval = 0
 
; Time limit for child processes to wait for a reaction on signals from master.
; Available units: s(econds), m(inutes), h(ours), or d(ays)
; Default Unit: seconds
; Default Value: 0
;process_control_timeout = 0
 
; The maximum number of processes FPM will fork. This has been design to control
; the global number of processes when using dynamic PM within a lot of pools.
; Use it with caution.
; Note: A value of 0 indicates no limit
; Default Value: 0
;process.max = 128
 
; Specify the nice(2) priority to apply to the master process (only if set)
; The value can vary from -19 (highest priority) to 20 (lower priority)
; Note: - It will only work if the FPM master process is launched as root
;       - The pool process will inherit the master process priority
;         unless it specified otherwise
; Default Value: no set
;process.priority = -19
 
; Send FPM to background. Set to 'no' to keep FPM in foreground for debugging.
; Default Value: yes
daemonize = yes
 
; Set open file descriptor rlimit for the master process.
; Default Value: system defined value
;rlimit_files = 1024
 
; Set max core size rlimit for the master process.
; Possible Values: 'unlimited' or an integer greater or equal to 0
; Default Value: system defined value
;rlimit_core = 0
 
; Specify the event mechanism FPM will use. The following is available:
; - select     (any POSIX os)
; - poll       (any POSIX os)
; - epoll      (linux >= 2.5.44)
; Default Value: not set (auto detection)
;events.mechanism = epoll
 
; When FPM is build with systemd integration, specify the interval,
; in second, between health report notification to systemd.
; Set to 0 to disable.
; Available Units: s(econds), m(inutes), h(ours)
; Default Unit: seconds
; Default value: 10
;systemd_interval = 10
 
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
; Pool Definitions ; 
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
 
; Multiple pools of child processes may be started with different listening
; ports and different management options.  The name of the pool will be
; used in logs and stats. There is no limitation on the number of pools which
; FPM can handle. Your system will tell you anyway :)
 
; See /etc/php-fpm.d/*.conf

Pool www

Bei der Installation wurde für den Pool www einen vordefiniert Konfigurationsdatei /etc/php-fpm.d/www.conf mitgeliefert.

 # vim /etc/php-fpm.d/www.conf
/etc/php-fpm.d/www.conf
; Start a new pool named 'www'.
; the variable $pool can we used in any directive and will be replaced by the
; pool name ('www' here)
[www]
 
; Per pool prefix
; It only applies on the following directives:
; - 'access.log'
; - 'slowlog'
; - 'listen' (unixsocket)
; - 'chroot'
; - 'chdir'
; - 'php_values'
; - 'php_admin_values'
; When not set, the global prefix (or @php_fpm_prefix@) applies instead.
; Note: This directive can also be relative to the global prefix.
; Default Value: none
;prefix = /path/to/pools/$pool
 
; Unix user/group of processes
; Note: The user is mandatory. If the group is not set, the default user's group
;       will be used.
user = php-fpm
group = php-fpm
 
; The address on which to accept FastCGI requests.
; Valid syntaxes are:
;   'ip.add.re.ss:port'    - to listen on a TCP socket to a specific IPv4 address on
;                            a specific port;
;   '[ip:6:addr:ess]:port' - to listen on a TCP socket to a specific IPv6 address on
;                            a specific port;
;   'port'                 - to listen on a TCP socket to all addresses
;                            (IPv6 and IPv4-mapped) on a specific port;
;   '/path/to/unix/socket' - to listen on a unix socket.
; Note: This value is mandatory.
listen = 127.0.0.1:9000
; WARNING: If you switch to a unix socket, you have to grant your webserver user
;          access to that socket by setting listen.acl_users to the webserver user.
;listen = /run/php-fpm/www.sock
 
; Set listen(2) backlog.
; Default Value: 511
;listen.backlog = 511
 
; Set permissions for unix socket, if one is used. In Linux, read/write
; permissions must be set in order to allow connections from a web server.
; Default Values: user and group are set as the running user
;                 mode is set to 0660
;listen.owner = root
;listen.group = root
;listen.mode = 0660
 
; When POSIX Access Control Lists are supported you can set them using
; these options, value is a comma separated list of user/group names.
; When set, listen.owner and listen.group are ignored
;listen.acl_users = apache,nginx
;listen.acl_users = apache
;listen.acl_users = nginx
;listen.acl_groups =
 
; List of addresses (IPv4/IPv6) of FastCGI clients which are allowed to connect.
; Equivalent to the FCGI_WEB_SERVER_ADDRS environment variable in the original
; PHP FCGI (5.2.2+). Makes sense only with a tcp listening socket. Each address
; must be separated by a comma. If this value is left blank, connections will be
; accepted from any ip address.
; Default Value: any
listen.allowed_clients = 127.0.0.1
 
; Specify the nice(2) priority to apply to the pool processes (only if set)
; The value can vary from -19 (highest priority) to 20 (lower priority)
; Note: - It will only work if the FPM master process is launched as root
;       - The pool processes will inherit the master process priority
;         unless it specified otherwise
; Default Value: no set
; process.priority = -19
 
; Choose how the process manager will control the number of child processes.
; Possible Values:
;   static  - a fixed number (pm.max_children) of child processes;
;   dynamic - the number of child processes are set dynamically based on the
;             following directives. With this process management, there will be
;             always at least 1 children.
;             pm.max_children      - the maximum number of children that can
;                                    be alive at the same time.
;             pm.start_servers     - the number of children created on startup.
;             pm.min_spare_servers - the minimum number of children in 'idle'
;                                    state (waiting to process). If the number
;                                    of 'idle' processes is less than this
;                                    number then some children will be created.
;             pm.max_spare_servers - the maximum number of children in 'idle'
;                                    state (waiting to process). If the number
;                                    of 'idle' processes is greater than this
;                                    number then some children will be killed.
;  ondemand - no children are created at startup. Children will be forked when
;             new requests will connect. The following parameter are used:
;             pm.max_children           - the maximum number of children that
;                                         can be alive at the same time.
;             pm.process_idle_timeout   - The number of seconds after which
;                                         an idle process will be killed.
; Note: This value is mandatory.
pm = dynamic
 
; The number of child processes to be created when pm is set to 'static' and the
; maximum number of child processes when pm is set to 'dynamic' or 'ondemand'.
; This value sets the limit on the number of simultaneous requests that will be
; served. Equivalent to the ApacheMaxClients directive with mpm_prefork.
; Equivalent to the PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN environment variable in the original PHP
; CGI. The below defaults are based on a server without much resources. Don't
; forget to tweak pm.* to fit your needs.
; Note: Used when pm is set to 'static', 'dynamic' or 'ondemand'
; Note: This value is mandatory.
pm.max_children = 50
 
; The number of child processes created on startup.
; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'dynamic'
; Default Value: min_spare_servers + (max_spare_servers - min_spare_servers) / 2
pm.start_servers = 5
 
; The desired minimum number of idle server processes.
; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'dynamic'
; Note: Mandatory when pm is set to 'dynamic'
pm.min_spare_servers = 5
 
; The desired maximum number of idle server processes.
; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'dynamic'
; Note: Mandatory when pm is set to 'dynamic'
pm.max_spare_servers = 35
 
; The number of seconds after which an idle process will be killed.
; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'ondemand'
; Default Value: 10s
;pm.process_idle_timeout = 10s;
 
; The number of requests each child process should execute before respawning.
; This can be useful to work around memory leaks in 3rd party libraries. For
; endless request processing specify '0'. Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS.
; Default Value: 0
;pm.max_requests = 500
 
; The URI to view the FPM status page. If this value is not set, no URI will be
; recognized as a status page. It shows the following informations:
;   pool                 - the name of the pool;
;   process manager      - static, dynamic or ondemand;
;   start time           - the date and time FPM has started;
;   start since          - number of seconds since FPM has started;
;   accepted conn        - the number of request accepted by the pool;
;   listen queue         - the number of request in the queue of pending
;                          connections (see backlog in listen(2));
;   max listen queue     - the maximum number of requests in the queue
;                          of pending connections since FPM has started;
;   listen queue len     - the size of the socket queue of pending connections;
;   idle processes       - the number of idle processes;
;   active processes     - the number of active processes;
;   total processes      - the number of idle + active processes;
;   max active processes - the maximum number of active processes since FPM
;                          has started;
;   max children reached - number of times, the process limit has been reached,
;                          when pm tries to start more children (works only for
;                          pm 'dynamic' and 'ondemand');
; Value are updated in real time.
; Example output:
;   pool:                 www
;   process manager:      static
;   start time:           01/Jul/2011:17:53:49 +0200
;   start since:          62636
;   accepted conn:        190460
;   listen queue:         0
;   max listen queue:     1
;   listen queue len:     42
;   idle processes:       4
;   active processes:     11
;   total processes:      15
;   max active processes: 12
;   max children reached: 0
;
; By default the status page output is formatted as text/plain. Passing either
; 'html', 'xml' or 'json' in the query string will return the corresponding
; output syntax. Example:
;   http://www.foo.bar/status
;   http://www.foo.bar/status?json
;   http://www.foo.bar/status?html
;   http://www.foo.bar/status?xml
;
; By default the status page only outputs short status. Passing 'full' in the
; query string will also return status for each pool process.
; Example:
;   http://www.foo.bar/status?full
;   http://www.foo.bar/status?json&full
;   http://www.foo.bar/status?html&full
;   http://www.foo.bar/status?xml&full
; The Full status returns for each process:
;   pid                  - the PID of the process;
;   state                - the state of the process (Idle, Running, ...);
;   start time           - the date and time the process has started;
;   start since          - the number of seconds since the process has started;
;   requests             - the number of requests the process has served;
;   request duration     - the duration in µs of the requests;
;   request method       - the request method (GET, POST, ...);
;   request URI          - the request URI with the query string;
;   content length       - the content length of the request (only with POST);
;   user                 - the user (PHP_AUTH_USER) (or '-' if not set);
;   script               - the main script called (or '-' if not set);
;   last request cpu     - the %cpu the last request consumed
;                          it's always 0 if the process is not in Idle state
;                          because CPU calculation is done when the request
;                          processing has terminated;
;   last request memory  - the max amount of memory the last request consumed
;                          it's always 0 if the process is not in Idle state
;                          because memory calculation is done when the request
;                          processing has terminated;
; If the process is in Idle state, then informations are related to the
; last request the process has served. Otherwise informations are related to
; the current request being served.
; Example output:
;   ************************
;   pid:                  31330
;   state:                Running
;   start time:           01/Jul/2011:17:53:49 +0200
;   start since:          63087
;   requests:             12808
;   request duration:     1250261
;   request method:       GET
;   request URI:          /test_mem.php?N=10000
;   content length:       0
;   user:                 -
;   script:               /home/fat/web/docs/php/test_mem.php
;   last request cpu:     0.00
;   last request memory:  0
;
; Note: There is a real-time FPM status monitoring sample web page available
;       It's available in: @EXPANDED_DATADIR@/fpm/status.html
;
; Note: The value must start with a leading slash (/). The value can be
;       anything, but it may not be a good idea to use the .php extension or it
;       may conflict with a real PHP file.
; Default Value: not set
;pm.status_path = /status
 
; The ping URI to call the monitoring page of FPM. If this value is not set, no
; URI will be recognized as a ping page. This could be used to test from outside
; that FPM is alive and responding, or to
; - create a graph of FPM availability (rrd or such);
; - remove a server from a group if it is not responding (load balancing);
; - trigger alerts for the operating team (24/7).
; Note: The value must start with a leading slash (/). The value can be
;       anything, but it may not be a good idea to use the .php extension or it
;       may conflict with a real PHP file.
; Default Value: not set
;ping.path = /ping
 
; This directive may be used to customize the response of a ping request. The
; response is formatted as text/plain with a 200 response code.
; Default Value: pong
;ping.response = pong
 
; The access log file
; Default: not set
;access.log = log/$pool.access.log
 
; The access log format.
; The following syntax is allowed
;  %%: the '%' character
;  %C: %CPU used by the request
;      it can accept the following format:
;      - %{user}C for user CPU only
;      - %{system}C for system CPU only
;      - %{total}C  for user + system CPU (default)
;  %d: time taken to serve the request
;      it can accept the following format:
;      - %{seconds}d (default)
;      - %{miliseconds}d
;      - %{mili}d
;      - %{microseconds}d
;      - %{micro}d
;  %e: an environment variable (same as $_ENV or $_SERVER)
;      it must be associated with embraces to specify the name of the env
;      variable. Some exemples:
;      - server specifics like: %{REQUEST_METHOD}e or %{SERVER_PROTOCOL}e
;      - HTTP headers like: %{HTTP_HOST}e or %{HTTP_USER_AGENT}e
;  %f: script filename
;  %l: content-length of the request (for POST request only)
;  %m: request method
;  %M: peak of memory allocated by PHP
;      it can accept the following format:
;      - %{bytes}M (default)
;      - %{kilobytes}M
;      - %{kilo}M
;      - %{megabytes}M
;      - %{mega}M
;  %n: pool name
;  %o: output header
;      it must be associated with embraces to specify the name of the header:
;      - %{Content-Type}o
;      - %{X-Powered-By}o
;      - %{Transfert-Encoding}o
;      - ....
;  %p: PID of the child that serviced the request
;  %P: PID of the parent of the child that serviced the request
;  %q: the query string
;  %Q: the '?' character if query string exists
;  %r: the request URI (without the query string, see %q and %Q)
;  %R: remote IP address
;  %s: status (response code)
;  %t: server time the request was received
;      it can accept a strftime(3) format:
;      %d/%b/%Y:%H:%M:%S %z (default)
;      The strftime(3) format must be encapsuled in a %{<strftime_format>}t tag
;      e.g. for a ISO8601 formatted timestring, use: %{%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S%z}t
;  %T: time the log has been written (the request has finished)
;      it can accept a strftime(3) format:
;      %d/%b/%Y:%H:%M:%S %z (default)
;      The strftime(3) format must be encapsuled in a %{<strftime_format>}t tag
;      e.g. for a ISO8601 formatted timestring, use: %{%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S%z}t
;  %u: remote user
;
; Default: "%R - %u %t \"%m %r\" %s"
;access.format = "%R - %u %t \"%m %r%Q%q\" %s %f %{mili}d %{kilo}M %C%%"
 
; The log file for slow requests
; Default Value: not set
; Note: slowlog is mandatory if request_slowlog_timeout is set
slowlog = /var/log/php-fpm/www-slow.log
 
; The timeout for serving a single request after which a PHP backtrace will be
; dumped to the 'slowlog' file. A value of '0s' means 'off'.
; Available units: s(econds)(default), m(inutes), h(ours), or d(ays)
; Default Value: 0
;request_slowlog_timeout = 0
 
; The timeout for serving a single request after which the worker process will
; be killed. This option should be used when the 'max_execution_time' ini option
; does not stop script execution for some reason. A value of '0' means 'off'.
; Available units: s(econds)(default), m(inutes), h(ours), or d(ays)
; Default Value: 0
;request_terminate_timeout = 0
 
; Set open file descriptor rlimit.
; Default Value: system defined value
;rlimit_files = 1024
 
; Set max core size rlimit.
; Possible Values: 'unlimited' or an integer greater or equal to 0
; Default Value: system defined value
;rlimit_core = 0
 
; Chroot to this directory at the start. This value must be defined as an
; absolute path. When this value is not set, chroot is not used.
; Note: you can prefix with '$prefix' to chroot to the pool prefix or one
; of its subdirectories. If the pool prefix is not set, the global prefix
; will be used instead.
; Note: chrooting is a great security feature and should be used whenever
;       possible. However, all PHP paths will be relative to the chroot
;       (error_log, sessions.save_path, ...).
; Default Value: not set
;chroot =
 
; Chdir to this directory at the start.
; Note: relative path can be used.
; Default Value: current directory or / when chroot
;chdir = /var/www
 
; Redirect worker stdout and stderr into main error log. If not set, stdout and
; stderr will be redirected to /dev/null according to FastCGI specs.
; Note: on highloaded environement, this can cause some delay in the page
; process time (several ms).
; Default Value: no
;catch_workers_output = yes
 
; Clear environment in FPM workers
; Prevents arbitrary environment variables from reaching FPM worker processes
; by clearing the environment in workers before env vars specified in this
; pool configuration are added.
; Setting to "no" will make all environment variables available to PHP code
; via getenv(), $_ENV and $_SERVER.
; Default Value: yes
;clear_env = no
 
; Limits the extensions of the main script FPM will allow to parse. This can
; prevent configuration mistakes on the web server side. You should only limit
; FPM to .php extensions to prevent malicious users to use other extensions to
; exectute php code.
; Note: set an empty value to allow all extensions.
; Default Value: .php
;security.limit_extensions = .php .php3 .php4 .php5 .php7
 
; Pass environment variables like LD_LIBRARY_PATH. All $VARIABLEs are taken from
; the current environment.
; Default Value: clean env
;env[HOSTNAME] = $HOSTNAME
;env[PATH] = /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin
;env[TMP] = /tmp
;env[TMPDIR] = /tmp
;env[TEMP] = /tmp
 
; Additional php.ini defines, specific to this pool of workers. These settings
; overwrite the values previously defined in the php.ini. The directives are the
; same as the PHP SAPI:
;   php_value/php_flag             - you can set classic ini defines which can
;                                    be overwritten from PHP call 'ini_set'.
;   php_admin_value/php_admin_flag - these directives won't be overwritten by
;                                     PHP call 'ini_set'
; For php_*flag, valid values are on, off, 1, 0, true, false, yes or no.
 
; Defining 'extension' will load the corresponding shared extension from
; extension_dir. Defining 'disable_functions' or 'disable_classes' will not
; overwrite previously defined php.ini values, but will append the new value
; instead.
 
; Note: path INI options can be relative and will be expanded with the prefix
; (pool, global or @prefix@)
 
; Default Value: nothing is defined by default except the values in php.ini and
;                specified at startup with the -d argument
;php_admin_value[sendmail_path] = /usr/sbin/sendmail -t -i -f www@my.domain.com
;php_flag[display_errors] = off
php_admin_value[error_log] = /var/log/php-fpm/www-error.log
php_admin_flag[log_errors] = on
;php_admin_value[memory_limit] = 128M
 
; Set data paths to directories owned by process user
php_value[session.save_handler] = files
php_value[session.save_path]    = /var/lib/php/fpm/session
php_value[soap.wsdl_cache_dir]  = /var/lib/php/fpm/wsdlcache
;php_value[opcache.file_cache]  = /var/lib/php/fpm/opcache

erster manueller Start

 # systemctl start php-fpm.service

Im syslog wird der erfolgreiche Start entsprechend protokolliert.

 # tail -n2 /var/log/messages
Jul 21 22:54:28 vml000107 systemd: Starting The PHP FastCGI Process Manager...
Jul 21 22:54:28 vml000107 systemd: Started The PHP FastCGI Process Manager.

Ebenso kann man den Status des Daemons mit Hilfe des Befehls systemctl abfragen.

 # systemctl status php-fpm.service

 php-fpm.service - The PHP FastCGI Process Manager
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/php-fpm.service; disabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active:active (running) since Fri 2017-07-21 22:54:28 CEST; 4min 6s ago
 Main PID: 6470 (php-fpm)
   Status: "Processes active: 0, idle: 5, Requests: 0, slow: 0, Traffic: 0req/sec"
   CGroup: /system.slice/php-fpm.service
           ├─6470 php-fpm: master process (/etc/php-fpm.conf)
           ├─6471 php-fpm: pool www
           ├─6472 php-fpm: pool www
           ├─6473 php-fpm: pool www
           ├─6474 php-fpm: pool www
           └─6475 php-fpm: pool www

Jul 21 22:54:28 vml000107.dmz.nausch.org systemd[1]: Starting The PHP FastCGI Process Manager...
Jul 21 22:54:28 vml000107.dmz.nausch.org systemd[1]: Started The PHP FastCGI Process Manager.

Im Verzeichnis /var/log/php-fpm/ werden vom Daemon Logdateien abgelegt. In der Datei error.log wird der Start des Daemon auch entsprechend protokolliert.

 # less /var/log/php-fpm/error.log
[21-Jul-2017 22:54:28] NOTICE: fpm is running, pid 6470
[21-Jul-2017 22:54:28] NOTICE: ready to handle connections
[21-Jul-2017 22:54:28] NOTICE: systemd monitor interval set to 10000ms

Der Daemon ist nun ohne Fehlermeldung gestartet und wir überprüfen nun, ob der Port 9000 vom Daemon geöffnet wurde.

 # netstat -tulpen    
Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address           Foreign Address         State       User       Inode      PID/Program name    
tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:199           0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      0          26573      1098/snmpd          
tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:9000          0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      0          230280     6470/php-fpm: maste 

automatischer Start beim Systemstart

Wollen wir den Daemon beim Hochfahren des Systems automatisch starten, greifen wir auf den Befehl systemctl zurück.

 # systemctl enable php-fpm.service
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/php-fpm.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/php-fpm.service.

Möchten wir uns vergewissern, ob der Daemon beim Systemstart gestartet wird oder nicht, erfahren wir ebenfalls mit dem Befehl systemctl.

 # systemctl is-enabled php-fpm.service
enabled

Startet der Server nicht automatisch, wird uns ein „disabled“ zurückgemeldet.

Für die Anbindung des Apache Webservers an unseren nun eingerichteten PHP-FPM-Daemon stellt uns das IUS-Repository ein passendes RPM zur Verfügung.

Installation

Wir installieren uns nun dieses RPM wie gewohnt mit Hilfe von yum.

 # yum install php70u-fpm-httpd

Was uns das Paket php70u-fpm-httpd alles mit ins System bringt, zeigt uns der Befehl rpm mit der Option -qil.

 # rpm -qil php70u-fpm-httpd
Name        : php70u-fpm-httpd
Version     : 7.0.21
Release     : 1.ius.centos7
Architecture: noarch
Install Date: Fri 21 Jul 2017 11:55:35 PM CEST
Group       : Development/Languages
Size        : 715
License     : PHP and Zend and BSD and MIT and ASL 1.0
Signature   : DSA/SHA1, Wed 19 Jul 2017 06:23:27 AM CEST, Key ID da221cdf9cd4953f
Source RPM  : php70u-7.0.21-1.ius.centos7.src.rpm
Build Date  : Thu 06 Jul 2017 04:28:31 PM CEST
Build Host  : 606890-build04.rpmdev.rackspace.com
Relocations : (not relocatable)
URL         : http://www.php.net/
Summary     : Apache HTTP Server configuration for PHP-FPM
Description :
Apache HTTP Server configuration file for the PHP FastCGI Process Manager.
/etc/httpd/conf.d/php-fpm.conf

Konfiguration

Die Konfiguration unseres Webservers erfolgt über Einträge in einzelnen Konfigurationsdateien, die wir nun im Detail einzeln in Augenschein nehmen wollen und dort unsere Änderungen vornehmen wollen.

00-proxy.conf

Damit der Apache Webserver die PHP-Request an den externen PHP-FPM-Daemon weiterreichen kann, wird das Proxymodul mod_proxy_fcgi verwendet. Die Integration bzw. das Laden des Moduls wir über die Konfigurationsdatei /etc/httpd/conf.modules.d/00-proxy.conf gesteuert. Dort ist nötige Eintrag beeits vorkonfiguriert, was wir wie folgt überprüfen können:

 # grep mod_proxy_fcgi /etc/httpd/conf.modules.d/00-proxy.conf
LoadModule proxy_fcgi_module modules/mod_proxy_fcgi.so

00-mpm.conf

Zur Performanceverbesserung wollen wir den Apache HTTP Server im event-Mode statt dem standardmässigen prefork-Mode betreiben. Die zugehörige Konfiguration erfolgt über die Konfigurationsdatei /etc/httpd/conf.modules.d/00-mpm.conf.

Wir deaktivieren zunächst das Modul prefork in dem wir den ersten Eintrag auskommentieren. Anschliessend aktivieren die dritte Option - das Modul event.

 # vim /etc/httpd/conf.modules.d/00-mpm.conf
/etc/httpd/conf.modules.d/00-mpm.conf
# Select the MPM module which should be used by uncommenting exactly
# one of the following LoadModule lines:
 
# prefork MPM: Implements a non-threaded, pre-forking web server
# See: http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/mod/prefork.html
# Django : 2017-07-22 - Modul prefork deaktiviert
# default: LoadModule mpm_prefork_module modules/mod_mpm_prefork.so
 
# worker MPM: Multi-Processing Module implementing a hybrid
# multi-threaded multi-process web server
# See: http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/mod/worker.html
#
#LoadModule mpm_worker_module modules/mod_mpm_worker.so
 
# event MPM: A variant of the worker MPM with the goal of consuming
# threads only for connections with active processing
# See: http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/mod/event.html
#
# Django  : 2017-07-22 - Modul event aktiviert und damit auch
#                        mod_php deaktiviert.
# default : #LoadModule mpm_event_module modules/mod_mpm_event.so
LoadModule mpm_event_module modules/mod_mpm_event.so

php-fpm.conf (FastCGI PM)

Das grundsätzliche Verhalten des alternativen FastCGI Prozess Managers php-fpm wird über die Konfigurationsdatei /etc/php-fpm.conf gesteuert. Diese Datei wir durch das RPM-Paket php70u-fpm bereitgestellt und darf nicht mit der Apache Konfigurationsdatei /etc/httpd/conf.d/php-fpm.conf verwechselt werden. Auf diese werden wir später noch eingehen!

In der Regel lassen wir diese Konfigurationsdatei unangetastet, es sei den wir wollten das Loggingverhalten unseren Wünschen nach anpassen.

 # vim /etc/php-fpm.conf
/etc/php-fpm.conf
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
; FPM Configuration ;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
 
; All relative paths in this configuration file are relative to PHP's install
; prefix.
 
; Include one or more files. If glob(3) exists, it is used to include a bunch of
; files from a glob(3) pattern. This directive can be used everywhere in the
; file.
include=/etc/php-fpm.d/*.conf
 
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
; Global Options ;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
 
[global]
; Pid file
; Default Value: none
pid = /run/php-fpm/php-fpm.pid
 
; Error log file
; If it's set to "syslog", log is sent to syslogd instead of being written
; in a local file.
; Default Value: /var/log/php-fpm.log
error_log = /var/log/php-fpm/error.log
 
; syslog_facility is used to specify what type of program is logging the
; message. This lets syslogd specify that messages from different facilities
; will be handled differently.
; See syslog(3) for possible values (ex daemon equiv LOG_DAEMON)
; Default Value: daemon
;syslog.facility = daemon
 
; syslog_ident is prepended to every message. If you have multiple FPM
; instances running on the same server, you can change the default value
; which must suit common needs.
; Default Value: php-fpm
;syslog.ident = php-fpm
 
; Log level
; Possible Values: alert, error, warning, notice, debug
; Default Value: notice
;log_level = notice
 
; If this number of child processes exit with SIGSEGV or SIGBUS within the time
; interval set by emergency_restart_interval then FPM will restart. A value
; of '0' means 'Off'.
; Default Value: 0
;emergency_restart_threshold = 0
 
; Interval of time used by emergency_restart_interval to determine when 
; a graceful restart will be initiated.  This can be useful to work around
; accidental corruptions in an accelerator's shared memory.
; Available Units: s(econds), m(inutes), h(ours), or d(ays)
; Default Unit: seconds
; Default Value: 0
;emergency_restart_interval = 0
 
; Time limit for child processes to wait for a reaction on signals from master.
; Available units: s(econds), m(inutes), h(ours), or d(ays)
; Default Unit: seconds
; Default Value: 0
;process_control_timeout = 0
 
; The maximum number of processes FPM will fork. This has been design to control
; the global number of processes when using dynamic PM within a lot of pools.
; Use it with caution.
; Note: A value of 0 indicates no limit
; Default Value: 0
;process.max = 128
 
; Specify the nice(2) priority to apply to the master process (only if set)
; The value can vary from -19 (highest priority) to 20 (lower priority)
; Note: - It will only work if the FPM master process is launched as root
;       - The pool process will inherit the master process priority
;         unless it specified otherwise
; Default Value: no set
;process.priority = -19
 
; Send FPM to background. Set to 'no' to keep FPM in foreground for debugging.
; Default Value: yes
daemonize = yes
 
; Set open file descriptor rlimit for the master process.
; Default Value: system defined value
;rlimit_files = 1024
 
; Set max core size rlimit for the master process.
; Possible Values: 'unlimited' or an integer greater or equal to 0
; Default Value: system defined value
;rlimit_core = 0
 
; Specify the event mechanism FPM will use. The following is available:
; - select     (any POSIX os)
; - poll       (any POSIX os)
; - epoll      (linux >= 2.5.44)
; Default Value: not set (auto detection)
;events.mechanism = epoll
 
; When FPM is build with systemd integration, specify the interval,
; in second, between health report notification to systemd.
; Set to 0 to disable.
; Available Units: s(econds), m(inutes), h(ours)
; Default Unit: seconds
; Default value: 10
;systemd_interval = 10
 
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
; Pool Definitions ; 
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
 
; Multiple pools of child processes may be started with different listening
; ports and different management options.  The name of the pool will be
; used in logs and stats. There is no limitation on the number of pools which
; FPM can handle. Your system will tell you anyway :)
 
; See /etc/php-fpm.d/*.conf

php-fpm.conf (HTTPD)

Über die Konfigurationsdatei /etc/httpd/conf.d/php-fpm.conf aus dem RPM-Paket php70u-fpm-httpd kann definiert werden, wie der PHP-Interpreter vom HTTP-Daemon angesprochen werden soll.

Der UNIX-Domain-Socket kann bei Apache 2.4 unter CentOS erst ab Version 2.10 unterstützt - für CentOS 7 wurde diese Funktion aber nach Apache Version 2.4.6 zurück portiert und kann daher bei Bedarf auch konfiguriert und verwendet werden.

Je nach Umgebung und Konfigurationspräferenzen können diese Optionen entweder global in der Datei /etc/httpd/conf.d/php-fpm.conf gesetzt, bzw. in den einzelnen Apache-vHOST-Konfigurationsdatei(en) im Verzeichnis /etc/httpd/conf.d hinterlegt werden.

# vim /etc/httpd/conf.d/php-fpm.conf

/etc/httpd/conf.d/php-fpm.conf
# This configuration requires httpd 2.4 with support for UDS (Unix domain
# sockets).  This was added upstream in version 2.4.10, and was also backported
# to 2.4.6 in EL7.
 
# The following lines prevent .user.ini files from being viewed by Web clients.
<Files ".user.ini">
    Require all denied
</Files>
 
# Allow php to handle Multiviews.
AddType text/html .php
 
# Add index.php to the list of files that will be served as directory indexes.
DirectoryIndex index.php
 
# Enable http authorization headers.
SetEnvIfNoCase ^Authorization$ "(.+)" HTTP_AUTHORIZATION=$1
 
<FilesMatch \.php$>
    SetHandler "proxy:fcgi://127.0.0.1:9000"
    #SetHandler "proxy:unix:/run/php-fpm/www.sock|fcgi://localhost"
</FilesMatch>

www.conf (Pools)

Im Verzeichnis /etc/php-fpm.d/ wird uns eine Beispielkonfigurationsdatei www.conf mitgeliefert. Mit Hilfe dieser Konfigurationsdatei bzw. -Dateien können unterschiedliche Pools definiert werden, die von den einzelnen Apache-Prozessen angesprochen werden und später bei Bedarf für den Dienst/Daemon die einzelnen „Child-Threats“ starten wird.

Diese Vorlage-Datei passen wir nun unseren Gegebenheiten nach an.

 # vim /etc/php-fpm.d/www.conf
/etc/php-fpm.d/www.conf
; Start a new pool named 'www'.
; the variable $pool can we used in any directive and will be replaced by the
; pool name ('www' here)
[www]
 
; Per pool prefix
; It only applies on the following directives:
; - 'access.log'
; - 'slowlog'
; - 'listen' (unixsocket)
; - 'chroot'
; - 'chdir'
; - 'php_values'
; - 'php_admin_values'
; When not set, the global prefix (or @php_fpm_prefix@) applies instead.
; Note: This directive can also be relative to the global prefix.
; Default Value: none
;prefix = /path/to/pools/$pool
 
; Unix user/group of processes
; Note: The user is mandatory. If the group is not set, the default user's group
;       will be used.
user = php-fpm
group = php-fpm
 
; The address on which to accept FastCGI requests.
; Valid syntaxes are:
;   'ip.add.re.ss:port'    - to listen on a TCP socket to a specific IPv4 address on
;                            a specific port;
;   '[ip:6:addr:ess]:port' - to listen on a TCP socket to a specific IPv6 address on
;                            a specific port;
;   'port'                 - to listen on a TCP socket to all addresses
;                            (IPv6 and IPv4-mapped) on a specific port;
;   '/path/to/unix/socket' - to listen on a unix socket.
; Note: This value is mandatory.
listen = 127.0.0.1:9000
; WARNING: If you switch to a unix socket, you have to grant your webserver user
;          access to that socket by setting listen.acl_users to the webserver user.
;listen = /run/php-fpm/www.sock
 
; Set listen(2) backlog.
; Default Value: 511
;listen.backlog = 511
 
; Set permissions for unix socket, if one is used. In Linux, read/write
; permissions must be set in order to allow connections from a web server.
; Default Values: user and group are set as the running user
;                 mode is set to 0660
;listen.owner = root
;listen.group = root
;listen.mode = 0660
 
; When POSIX Access Control Lists are supported you can set them using
; these options, value is a comma separated list of user/group names.
; When set, listen.owner and listen.group are ignored
;listen.acl_users = apache,nginx
;listen.acl_users = apache
;listen.acl_users = nginx
;listen.acl_groups =
 
; List of addresses (IPv4/IPv6) of FastCGI clients which are allowed to connect.
; Equivalent to the FCGI_WEB_SERVER_ADDRS environment variable in the original
; PHP FCGI (5.2.2+). Makes sense only with a tcp listening socket. Each address
; must be separated by a comma. If this value is left blank, connections will be
; accepted from any ip address.
; Default Value: any
listen.allowed_clients = 127.0.0.1
 
; Specify the nice(2) priority to apply to the pool processes (only if set)
; The value can vary from -19 (highest priority) to 20 (lower priority)
; Note: - It will only work if the FPM master process is launched as root
;       - The pool processes will inherit the master process priority
;         unless it specified otherwise
; Default Value: no set
; process.priority = -19
 
; Choose how the process manager will control the number of child processes.
; Possible Values:
;   static  - a fixed number (pm.max_children) of child processes;
;   dynamic - the number of child processes are set dynamically based on the
;             following directives. With this process management, there will be
;             always at least 1 children.
;             pm.max_children      - the maximum number of children that can
;                                    be alive at the same time.
;             pm.start_servers     - the number of children created on startup.
;             pm.min_spare_servers - the minimum number of children in 'idle'
;                                    state (waiting to process). If the number
;                                    of 'idle' processes is less than this
;                                    number then some children will be created.
;             pm.max_spare_servers - the maximum number of children in 'idle'
;                                    state (waiting to process). If the number
;                                    of 'idle' processes is greater than this
;                                    number then some children will be killed.
;  ondemand - no children are created at startup. Children will be forked when
;             new requests will connect. The following parameter are used:
;             pm.max_children           - the maximum number of children that
;                                         can be alive at the same time.
;             pm.process_idle_timeout   - The number of seconds after which
;                                         an idle process will be killed.
; Note: This value is mandatory.
pm = dynamic
 
; The number of child processes to be created when pm is set to 'static' and the
; maximum number of child processes when pm is set to 'dynamic' or 'ondemand'.
; This value sets the limit on the number of simultaneous requests that will be
; served. Equivalent to the ApacheMaxClients directive with mpm_prefork.
; Equivalent to the PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN environment variable in the original PHP
; CGI. The below defaults are based on a server without much resources. Don't
; forget to tweak pm.* to fit your needs.
; Note: Used when pm is set to 'static', 'dynamic' or 'ondemand'
; Note: This value is mandatory.
pm.max_children = 50
 
; The number of child processes created on startup.
; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'dynamic'
; Default Value: min_spare_servers + (max_spare_servers - min_spare_servers) / 2
pm.start_servers = 5
 
; The desired minimum number of idle server processes.
; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'dynamic'
; Note: Mandatory when pm is set to 'dynamic'
pm.min_spare_servers = 5
 
; The desired maximum number of idle server processes.
; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'dynamic'
; Note: Mandatory when pm is set to 'dynamic'
pm.max_spare_servers = 35
 
; The number of seconds after which an idle process will be killed.
; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'ondemand'
; Default Value: 10s
;pm.process_idle_timeout = 10s;
 
; The number of requests each child process should execute before respawning.
; This can be useful to work around memory leaks in 3rd party libraries. For
; endless request processing specify '0'. Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS.
; Default Value: 0
;pm.max_requests = 500
 
; The URI to view the FPM status page. If this value is not set, no URI will be
; recognized as a status page. It shows the following informations:
;   pool                 - the name of the pool;
;   process manager      - static, dynamic or ondemand;
;   start time           - the date and time FPM has started;
;   start since          - number of seconds since FPM has started;
;   accepted conn        - the number of request accepted by the pool;
;   listen queue         - the number of request in the queue of pending
;                          connections (see backlog in listen(2));
;   max listen queue     - the maximum number of requests in the queue
;                          of pending connections since FPM has started;
;   listen queue len     - the size of the socket queue of pending connections;
;   idle processes       - the number of idle processes;
;   active processes     - the number of active processes;
;   total processes      - the number of idle + active processes;
;   max active processes - the maximum number of active processes since FPM
;                          has started;
;   max children reached - number of times, the process limit has been reached,
;                          when pm tries to start more children (works only for
;                          pm 'dynamic' and 'ondemand');
; Value are updated in real time.
; Example output:
;   pool:                 www
;   process manager:      static
;   start time:           01/Jul/2011:17:53:49 +0200
;   start since:          62636
;   accepted conn:        190460
;   listen queue:         0
;   max listen queue:     1
;   listen queue len:     42
;   idle processes:       4
;   active processes:     11
;   total processes:      15
;   max active processes: 12
;   max children reached: 0
;
; By default the status page output is formatted as text/plain. Passing either
; 'html', 'xml' or 'json' in the query string will return the corresponding
; output syntax. Example:
;   http://www.foo.bar/status
;   http://www.foo.bar/status?json
;   http://www.foo.bar/status?html
;   http://www.foo.bar/status?xml
;
; By default the status page only outputs short status. Passing 'full' in the
; query string will also return status for each pool process.
; Example:
;   http://www.foo.bar/status?full
;   http://www.foo.bar/status?json&full
;   http://www.foo.bar/status?html&full
;   http://www.foo.bar/status?xml&full
; The Full status returns for each process:
;   pid                  - the PID of the process;
;   state                - the state of the process (Idle, Running, ...);
;   start time           - the date and time the process has started;
;   start since          - the number of seconds since the process has started;
;   requests             - the number of requests the process has served;
;   request duration     - the duration in µs of the requests;
;   request method       - the request method (GET, POST, ...);
;   request URI          - the request URI with the query string;
;   content length       - the content length of the request (only with POST);
;   user                 - the user (PHP_AUTH_USER) (or '-' if not set);
;   script               - the main script called (or '-' if not set);
;   last request cpu     - the %cpu the last request consumed
;                          it's always 0 if the process is not in Idle state
;                          because CPU calculation is done when the request
;                          processing has terminated;
;   last request memory  - the max amount of memory the last request consumed
;                          it's always 0 if the process is not in Idle state
;                          because memory calculation is done when the request
;                          processing has terminated;
; If the process is in Idle state, then informations are related to the
; last request the process has served. Otherwise informations are related to
; the current request being served.
; Example output:
;   ************************
;   pid:                  31330
;   state:                Running
;   start time:           01/Jul/2011:17:53:49 +0200
;   start since:          63087
;   requests:             12808
;   request duration:     1250261
;   request method:       GET
;   request URI:          /test_mem.php?N=10000
;   content length:       0
;   user:                 -
;   script:               /home/fat/web/docs/php/test_mem.php
;   last request cpu:     0.00
;   last request memory:  0
;
; Note: There is a real-time FPM status monitoring sample web page available
;       It's available in: @EXPANDED_DATADIR@/fpm/status.html
;
; Note: The value must start with a leading slash (/). The value can be
;       anything, but it may not be a good idea to use the .php extension or it
;       may conflict with a real PHP file.
; Default Value: not set
;pm.status_path = /status
 
; The ping URI to call the monitoring page of FPM. If this value is not set, no
; URI will be recognized as a ping page. This could be used to test from outside
; that FPM is alive and responding, or to
; - create a graph of FPM availability (rrd or such);
; - remove a server from a group if it is not responding (load balancing);
; - trigger alerts for the operating team (24/7).
; Note: The value must start with a leading slash (/). The value can be
;       anything, but it may not be a good idea to use the .php extension or it
;       may conflict with a real PHP file.
; Default Value: not set
;ping.path = /ping
 
; This directive may be used to customize the response of a ping request. The
; response is formatted as text/plain with a 200 response code.
; Default Value: pong
;ping.response = pong
 
; The access log file
; Default: not set
;access.log = log/$pool.access.log
 
; The access log format.
; The following syntax is allowed
;  %%: the '%' character
;  %C: %CPU used by the request
;      it can accept the following format:
;      - %{user}C for user CPU only
;      - %{system}C for system CPU only
;      - %{total}C  for user + system CPU (default)
;  %d: time taken to serve the request
;      it can accept the following format:
;      - %{seconds}d (default)
;      - %{miliseconds}d
;      - %{mili}d
;      - %{microseconds}d
;      - %{micro}d
;  %e: an environment variable (same as $_ENV or $_SERVER)
;      it must be associated with embraces to specify the name of the env
;      variable. Some exemples:
;      - server specifics like: %{REQUEST_METHOD}e or %{SERVER_PROTOCOL}e
;      - HTTP headers like: %{HTTP_HOST}e or %{HTTP_USER_AGENT}e
;  %f: script filename
;  %l: content-length of the request (for POST request only)
;  %m: request method
;  %M: peak of memory allocated by PHP
;      it can accept the following format:
;      - %{bytes}M (default)
;      - %{kilobytes}M
;      - %{kilo}M
;      - %{megabytes}M
;      - %{mega}M
;  %n: pool name
;  %o: output header
;      it must be associated with embraces to specify the name of the header:
;      - %{Content-Type}o
;      - %{X-Powered-By}o
;      - %{Transfert-Encoding}o
;      - ....
;  %p: PID of the child that serviced the request
;  %P: PID of the parent of the child that serviced the request
;  %q: the query string
;  %Q: the '?' character if query string exists
;  %r: the request URI (without the query string, see %q and %Q)
;  %R: remote IP address
;  %s: status (response code)
;  %t: server time the request was received
;      it can accept a strftime(3) format:
;      %d/%b/%Y:%H:%M:%S %z (default)
;      The strftime(3) format must be encapsuled in a %{<strftime_format>}t tag
;      e.g. for a ISO8601 formatted timestring, use: %{%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S%z}t
;  %T: time the log has been written (the request has finished)
;      it can accept a strftime(3) format:
;      %d/%b/%Y:%H:%M:%S %z (default)
;      The strftime(3) format must be encapsuled in a %{<strftime_format>}t tag
;      e.g. for a ISO8601 formatted timestring, use: %{%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S%z}t
;  %u: remote user
;
; Default: "%R - %u %t \"%m %r\" %s"
;access.format = "%R - %u %t \"%m %r%Q%q\" %s %f %{mili}d %{kilo}M %C%%"
 
; The log file for slow requests
; Default Value: not set
; Note: slowlog is mandatory if request_slowlog_timeout is set
slowlog = /var/log/php-fpm/www-slow.log
 
; The timeout for serving a single request after which a PHP backtrace will be
; dumped to the 'slowlog' file. A value of '0s' means 'off'.
; Available units: s(econds)(default), m(inutes), h(ours), or d(ays)
; Default Value: 0
;request_slowlog_timeout = 0
 
; The timeout for serving a single request after which the worker process will
; be killed. This option should be used when the 'max_execution_time' ini option
; does not stop script execution for some reason. A value of '0' means 'off'.
; Available units: s(econds)(default), m(inutes), h(ours), or d(ays)
; Default Value: 0
;request_terminate_timeout = 0
 
; Set open file descriptor rlimit.
; Default Value: system defined value
;rlimit_files = 1024
 
; Set max core size rlimit.
; Possible Values: 'unlimited' or an integer greater or equal to 0
; Default Value: system defined value
;rlimit_core = 0
 
; Chroot to this directory at the start. This value must be defined as an
; absolute path. When this value is not set, chroot is not used.
; Note: you can prefix with '$prefix' to chroot to the pool prefix or one
; of its subdirectories. If the pool prefix is not set, the global prefix
; will be used instead.
; Note: chrooting is a great security feature and should be used whenever
;       possible. However, all PHP paths will be relative to the chroot
;       (error_log, sessions.save_path, ...).
; Default Value: not set
;chroot =
 
; Chdir to this directory at the start.
; Note: relative path can be used.
; Default Value: current directory or / when chroot
;chdir = /var/www
 
; Redirect worker stdout and stderr into main error log. If not set, stdout and
; stderr will be redirected to /dev/null according to FastCGI specs.
; Note: on highloaded environement, this can cause some delay in the page
; process time (several ms).
; Default Value: no
;catch_workers_output = yes
 
; Clear environment in FPM workers
; Prevents arbitrary environment variables from reaching FPM worker processes
; by clearing the environment in workers before env vars specified in this
; pool configuration are added.
; Setting to "no" will make all environment variables available to PHP code
; via getenv(), $_ENV and $_SERVER.
; Default Value: yes
;clear_env = no
 
; Limits the extensions of the main script FPM will allow to parse. This can
; prevent configuration mistakes on the web server side. You should only limit
; FPM to .php extensions to prevent malicious users to use other extensions to
; exectute php code.
; Note: set an empty value to allow all extensions.
; Default Value: .php
;security.limit_extensions = .php .php3 .php4 .php5 .php7
 
; Pass environment variables like LD_LIBRARY_PATH. All $VARIABLEs are taken from
; the current environment.
; Default Value: clean env
;env[HOSTNAME] = $HOSTNAME
;env[PATH] = /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin
;env[TMP] = /tmp
;env[TMPDIR] = /tmp
;env[TEMP] = /tmp
 
; Additional php.ini defines, specific to this pool of workers. These settings
; overwrite the values previously defined in the php.ini. The directives are the
; same as the PHP SAPI:
;   php_value/php_flag             - you can set classic ini defines which can
;                                    be overwritten from PHP call 'ini_set'.
;   php_admin_value/php_admin_flag - these directives won't be overwritten by
;                                     PHP call 'ini_set'
; For php_*flag, valid values are on, off, 1, 0, true, false, yes or no.
 
; Defining 'extension' will load the corresponding shared extension from
; extension_dir. Defining 'disable_functions' or 'disable_classes' will not
; overwrite previously defined php.ini values, but will append the new value
; instead.
 
; Note: path INI options can be relative and will be expanded with the prefix
; (pool, global or @prefix@)
 
; Default Value: nothing is defined by default except the values in php.ini and
;                specified at startup with the -d argument
;php_admin_value[sendmail_path] = /usr/sbin/sendmail -t -i -f www@my.domain.com
;php_flag[display_errors] = off
php_admin_value[error_log] = /var/log/php-fpm/www-error.log
php_admin_flag[log_errors] = on
;php_admin_value[memory_limit] = 128M
 
; Set data paths to directories owned by process user
php_value[session.save_handler] = files
php_value[session.save_path]    = /var/lib/php/fpm/session
php_value[soap.wsdl_cache_dir]  = /var/lib/php/fpm/wsdlcache
;php_value[opcache.file_cache]  = /var/lib/php/fpm/opcache

Auf folgende Parameter werfen wir nun ein besonderes Augenmerk:

  • [nextcloud]
    Definition des Pool-Namens
  • user = apache und group = apache
    UID und GID mit dem der PHP-FPM FastCGI Prozess Manager gestartet wird. Möchte man den PHP Interpreter und den HTTP-Daemon aus Sicherheitsgründen mit unterschiedlichen Rechten laufen lassen, belässt man den Standardeintrag. Ist aus Anwendungsgründen dies nicht möglich setzt man diese beiden Werte einfach auf die des Apache-Webservers.
  • listen = 127.0.0.1:9002
    IP-Adresse und Port an der der FastCGI Prozess Manager Verbindungen des HTTP-Daemon entgegennehmen soll. Da der FastCGI Prozess Manager und der Apache-Webserver auf dem gleichen Host laufen, wählen wir hier die Adresse 127.0.0.1.
  • listen.allowed_clients = 127.0.0.1
    Angabe des Clients-/Hosts der sich mit dem FastCGI Prozess Manager verbinden darf. Da der FastCGI Prozess Manager und der Apache-Webserver auf dem gleichen Host laufen, wählen wir hier die Adresse 127.0.0.1.
  • pm.status_path = /nextcloud-pool-status
    URI der Status Seite des FPM FastCGI Prozess Managers. Neben der Definition der URI ist es zusätzlich noch erforderlich, eine Lacation in einem vHOST oder in einer eigenen Konfigurationsdatei zu definieren. Im folgenden Konfigurationsbeispiel werden wir eine eigene Konfigurationsdatei dazu verwenden. Den Zugriff auf die Statusseite, sicher wir natürlich entsprechend ab, so dass sich ausschließlich unser Administrator des WEB-Servers entsprechend anmelden muss. Eine obligatorische Absicherung des Transportkanals mittels TLS muss nicht näher erläutert werden!
     # vim /etc/httpd/conf.d/nextcloud-pool-status.conf
    /etc/httpd/conf.d/nextcloud-pool-status.conf
        <Location /nextcloud-pool-status>
            SetHandler "proxy:fcgi://127.0.0.1:9002"
            AuthType Basic
            AuthName "Fuer den Zugriff auf den Webserver bitte Anmeldedaten eingeben!"
            AuthBasicProvider ldap
            AuthLDAPUrl ldaps://openldap.dmz.nausch.org:636/ou=People,dc=nausch,dc=org?uid
            AuthLDAPBindDN cn=Technischer_User,dc=nausch,dc=org
            AuthLDAPBindPassword "e1n531f!D4xIi57n38103034u!"
            AuthLDAPBindAuthoritative on
            Require ldap-user webserver-admin
        </Location>

    In der Konfigurationsdatei finden sich ausführliche Hinweise zu den Ausgabemöglichkeiten bei der Statusabfrage.
    Bsp.: text

    pool:                 nextcloud
    process manager:      dynamic
    start time:           07/Aug/2017:17:33:25 +0200
    start since:          15054
    accepted conn:        2723
    listen queue:         0
    max listen queue:     0
    listen queue len:     128
    idle processes:       7
    active processes:     1
    total processes:      8
    max active processes: 3
    max children reached: 0
    slow requests:        

Nachfolgendes Beispiel zeigt exemplarisch die detailierte html-Ausgabe. Bild: PHP-FPM Statusseite

  • slowlog = /var/log/php-fpm/www-slow.log
    Name der Loddatei in der die slow query logs protokolliert werden sollen.
  • php_admin_value[error_log] = /var/log/php-fpm/nextcloud-error.log
    Name der Logdatei in der PHP-Fehlermeldungen geschrieben werden sollen.

Aktivieren der Programmänderungen

Zum Aktiveren unsere durchgeführten Konfigurationsänderungen starten wir nun einmal den Apache-Webserver durch. Zuvor überprüfen wir aber noch, ob sich in den Apache-Konfigurationsdateien ein syntaktischer Fehler eingeschlichen hat.

 # apachectl -t
Syntax OK

Nun können wir den HTTP-Daemon einmal durchstarten

 # systemctl restart httpd.service

Den erfolgreichen Neustart des Webservers können wir nun auch abfragen.

 # systemctl status httpd.service 

 httpd.service - The Apache HTTP Server
   Loaded: loaded (/etc/systemd/system/httpd.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (running) since Mon 2017-08-07 22:21:37 CEST; 2min 41s ago
     Docs: man:httpd(8)
           man:apachectl(8)
  Process: 9894 ExecStop=/bin/kill -WINCH ${MAINPID} (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
  Process: 12446 ExecReload=/usr/sbin/httpd $OPTIONS -k graceful (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
 Main PID: 9898 (httpd)
   Status: "Total requests: 39; Current requests/sec: 0.2; Current traffic: 614 B/sec"
   CGroup: /system.slice/httpd.service
           ├─9898 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
           ├─9899 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
           ├─9900 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
           ├─9901 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
           ├─9904 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
           └─9985 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND

Aug 07 22:21:37 vml000107.dmz.nausch.org systemd[1]: Starting The Apache HTTP Server...
Aug 07 22:21:37 vml000107.dmz.nausch.org systemd[1]: Started The Apache HTTP Server.

Anschließend starten wir den PHP-FPM-Daemon einmal durch.

 # systemctl restart php-fpm.service

Auch hier können wir den erfolgreichen Restart abfragen.

 php-fpm.service - The PHP FastCGI Process Manager
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/php-fpm.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (running) since Mon 2017-08-07 22:28:33 CEST; 44s ago
 Main PID: 10260 (php-fpm)
   Status: "Processes active: 1, idle: 15, Requests: 6, slow: 0, Traffic: 0.2req/sec"
   CGroup: /system.slice/php-fpm.service
           ├─10260 php-fpm: master process (/etc/php-fpm.conf)
           ├─10261 php-fpm: pool fpm
           ├─10262 php-fpm: pool fpm
           ├─10263 php-fpm: pool fpm
           ├─10264 php-fpm: pool fpm
           ├─10265 php-fpm: pool fpm
           ├─10266 php-fpm: pool nextcloud
           ├─10267 php-fpm: pool nextcloud
           ├─10268 php-fpm: pool nextcloud
           ├─10269 php-fpm: pool nextcloud
           ├─10270 php-fpm: pool nextcloud
           ├─10271 php-fpm: pool www
           ├─10272 php-fpm: pool www
           ├─10273 php-fpm: pool www
           ├─10274 php-fpm: pool www
           ├─10275 php-fpm: pool www
           ├─10276 php-fpm: pool nextcloud
           └─10290 php-fpm: pool fpm

Aug 07 22:28:33 vml000107.dmz.nausch.org systemd[1]: Starting The PHP FastCGI Process Manager...
Aug 07 22:28:33 vml000107.dmz.nausch.org systemd[1]: Started The PHP FastCGI Process Manager.

Alternativ dazu kann auch mit nachfolgendem Befehlsaufruf überprüft werden welche Prozesse mit den zugehörigen Pools gestartet wurden.

 # ps auxwwwf | grep php
root     10331  0.0  0.0 112644   928 pts/0    S+   22:31   0:00                      \_ grep --color=auto php
root     10260  0.0  0.7 466980 30676 ?        Ss   22:28   0:00 php-fpm: master process (/etc/php-fpm.conf)
php-fpm  10261  0.2  0.7 559724 30696 ?        S    22:28   0:00  \_ php-fpm: pool fpm
php-fpm  10262  0.0  0.5 467528 20792 ?        S    22:28   0:00  \_ php-fpm: pool fpm
php-fpm  10263  0.0  0.4 467520 17476 ?        S    22:28   0:00  \_ php-fpm: pool fpm
php-fpm  10264  0.0  0.1 466860  6996 ?        S    22:28   0:00  \_ php-fpm: pool fpm
php-fpm  10265  0.0  0.1 466860  7000 ?        S    22:28   0:00  \_ php-fpm: pool fpm
apache   10266  0.5  0.7 471888 30596 ?        S    22:28   0:00  \_ php-fpm: pool nextcloud
apache   10267  0.4  0.6 471832 27628 ?        S    22:28   0:00  \_ php-fpm: pool nextcloud
apache   10268  0.3  0.7 473876 29936 ?        S    22:28   0:00  \_ php-fpm: pool nextcloud
apache   10269  0.3  0.5 469780 22724 ?        S    22:28   0:00  \_ php-fpm: pool nextcloud
apache   10270  0.1  0.6 471836 27720 ?        S    22:28   0:00  \_ php-fpm: pool nextcloud
apache   10271  0.0  0.1 466860  6996 ?        S    22:28   0:00  \_ php-fpm: pool www
apache   10272  0.0  0.1 466860  6996 ?        S    22:28   0:00  \_ php-fpm: pool www
apache   10273  0.0  0.1 466860  6996 ?        S    22:28   0:00  \_ php-fpm: pool www
apache   10274  0.0  0.1 466860  6996 ?        S    22:28   0:00  \_ php-fpm: pool www
apache   10275  0.0  0.1 466860  7000 ?        S    22:28   0:00  \_ php-fpm: pool www
apache   10276  0.3  0.6 471828 26136 ?        S    22:28   0:00  \_ php-fpm: pool nextcloud
php-fpm  10290  0.0  0.1 466860  7012 ?        S    22:29   0:00  \_ php-fpm: pool fpm

Zum Schluss wollen wir noch prüfen, ob auch wirklich die gewünschte PHP-API sich in Verwendung befindet. Hierzu legen wir eine einfache Textdatei im Document-ROOT unseres Webservers ab und rufen die zugehörige UIR über den Browser unserer Wahl auf.

PHP Info bei Verwendung von mod_php

Das erste Beispiel zeigt die Verwendung des Apache 2.0 Handlers an, der bei Verwendung der originären PHP-Anbindung mit Hilfe von mod_php zur Anwendung kommt.

 # echo '<?php phpinfo(); ?>' > /srv/www/html/info.php
 $ firefox 10.0.0.107/info.php

Bild: PHP Info unter Verwendung von mod_php

 # rm /srv/www/html/info.php

Da die Datei info.php nur zu Demozwecken notwendig war, können wir dies nun auch wieder löschen.

PHP Info bei Verwendung von php-fpm

Das zweite Beispiel zeigt die erfolgreiche Verwendung des alternativen FastCGI Prozess Managers: FPM/FastCGI.

 # echo '<?php phpinfo(); ?>' > /srv/www/html/info.php
 $ firefox 10.0.0.107/info.php

Bild: PHP Info unter Verwendung von php-fpm

Da auch hier dies nur ein Demonstrationszweck war, entfernen wir auch hier wieder die zuvor angelegte Testdatei info.php.

 # rm /srv/www/html/info.php

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