Grundinstallation Apache Webserver

Unseren Apache-Webserver installieren wir einfach mit Hilfe von YUM.

# yum install httpd httpd-tools -y

httpd

Was uns das Paket httpd alles mitbringt, zeigt uns der Aufruf von:

# rpm -qil httpd
Name        : httpd                        Relocations: (not relocatable)
Version     : 2.2.15                            Vendor: CentOS
Release     : 5.el6.centos                  Build Date: Do 07 Jul 2011 12:28:56 CEST
Install Date: Fr 09 Sep 2011 20:16:28 CEST      Build Host: c6b6.bsys.dev.centos.org
Group       : System Environment/Daemons    Source RPM: httpd-2.2.15-5.el6.centos.src.rpm
Size        : 2886013                          License: ASL 2.0
Signature   : RSA/8, Do 07 Jul 2011 13:50:23 CEST, Key ID 0946fca2c105b9de
Packager    : CentOS BuildSystem <http://bugs.centos.org>
URL         : http://httpd.apache.org/
Summary     : Apache HTTP Server
Description :
The Apache HTTP Server is a powerful, efficient, and extensible
web server.
/etc/httpd
/etc/httpd/conf
/etc/httpd/conf.d
/etc/httpd/conf.d/README
/etc/httpd/conf.d/welcome.conf
/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
/etc/httpd/conf/magic
/etc/httpd/logs
/etc/httpd/modules
/etc/httpd/run
/etc/logrotate.d/httpd
/etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd
/etc/sysconfig/httpd
/usr/lib/httpd
/usr/lib/httpd/modules
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_actions.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_alias.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_asis.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_auth_basic.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_auth_digest.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_authn_alias.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_authn_anon.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_authn_dbd.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_authn_dbm.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_authn_default.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_authn_file.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_authnz_ldap.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_authz_dbm.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_authz_default.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_authz_groupfile.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_authz_host.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_authz_owner.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_authz_user.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_autoindex.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_cache.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_cern_meta.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_cgi.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_cgid.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_dav.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_dav_fs.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_dbd.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_deflate.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_dir.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_disk_cache.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_dumpio.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_env.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_expires.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_ext_filter.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_filter.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_headers.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_ident.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_include.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_info.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_ldap.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_log_config.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_log_forensic.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_logio.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_mime.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_mime_magic.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_negotiation.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_ajp.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_balancer.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_connect.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_ftp.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_http.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_scgi.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_reqtimeout.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_rewrite.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_setenvif.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_speling.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_status.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_substitute.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_suexec.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_unique_id.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_userdir.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_usertrack.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_version.so
/usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_vhost_alias.so
/usr/sbin/apachectl
/usr/sbin/htcacheclean
/usr/sbin/httpd
/usr/sbin/httpd.event
/usr/sbin/httpd.worker
/usr/sbin/httxt2dbm
/usr/sbin/rotatelogs
/usr/sbin/suexec
/usr/share/doc/httpd-2.2.15
/usr/share/doc/httpd-2.2.15/ABOUT_APACHE
/usr/share/doc/httpd-2.2.15/CHANGES
/usr/share/doc/httpd-2.2.15/LICENSE
/usr/share/doc/httpd-2.2.15/NOTICE
/usr/share/doc/httpd-2.2.15/README
/usr/share/doc/httpd-2.2.15/VERSIONING
/usr/share/man/man8/apachectl.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/htcacheclean.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/httpd.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/rotatelogs.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/suexec.8.gz
/var/cache/mod_proxy
/var/lib/dav
/var/log/httpd
/var/run/httpd
/var/www
/var/www/cgi-bin
/var/www/error
/var/www/error/HTTP_BAD_GATEWAY.html.var
/var/www/error/HTTP_BAD_REQUEST.html.var
/var/www/error/HTTP_FORBIDDEN.html.var
/var/www/error/HTTP_GONE.html.var
/var/www/error/HTTP_INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR.html.var
/var/www/error/HTTP_LENGTH_REQUIRED.html.var
/var/www/error/HTTP_METHOD_NOT_ALLOWED.html.var
/var/www/error/HTTP_NOT_FOUND.html.var
/var/www/error/HTTP_NOT_IMPLEMENTED.html.var
/var/www/error/HTTP_PRECONDITION_FAILED.html.var
/var/www/error/HTTP_REQUEST_ENTITY_TOO_LARGE.html.var
/var/www/error/HTTP_REQUEST_TIME_OUT.html.var
/var/www/error/HTTP_REQUEST_URI_TOO_LARGE.html.var
/var/www/error/HTTP_SERVICE_UNAVAILABLE.html.var
/var/www/error/HTTP_UNAUTHORIZED.html.var
/var/www/error/HTTP_UNSUPPORTED_MEDIA_TYPE.html.var
/var/www/error/HTTP_VARIANT_ALSO_VARIES.html.var
/var/www/error/README
/var/www/error/contact.html.var
/var/www/error/include
/var/www/error/include/bottom.html
/var/www/error/include/spacer.html
/var/www/error/include/top.html
/var/www/error/noindex.html
/var/www/html
/var/www/icons
/var/www/icons/README
/var/www/icons/README.html
/var/www/icons/a.gif
/var/www/icons/a.png
/var/www/icons/alert.black.gif
/var/www/icons/alert.black.png
/var/www/icons/alert.red.gif
/var/www/icons/alert.red.png
/var/www/icons/apache_pb.gif
/var/www/icons/apache_pb.png
/var/www/icons/apache_pb2.gif
/var/www/icons/apache_pb2.png
/var/www/icons/apache_pb2_ani.gif
/var/www/icons/back.gif
/var/www/icons/back.png
/var/www/icons/ball.gray.gif
/var/www/icons/ball.gray.png
/var/www/icons/ball.red.gif
/var/www/icons/ball.red.png
/var/www/icons/binary.gif
/var/www/icons/binary.png
/var/www/icons/binhex.gif
/var/www/icons/binhex.png
/var/www/icons/blank.gif
/var/www/icons/blank.png
/var/www/icons/bomb.gif
/var/www/icons/bomb.png
/var/www/icons/box1.gif
/var/www/icons/box1.png
/var/www/icons/box2.gif
/var/www/icons/box2.png
/var/www/icons/broken.gif
/var/www/icons/broken.png
/var/www/icons/burst.gif
/var/www/icons/burst.png
/var/www/icons/c.gif
/var/www/icons/c.png
/var/www/icons/comp.blue.gif
/var/www/icons/comp.blue.png
/var/www/icons/comp.gray.gif
/var/www/icons/comp.gray.png
/var/www/icons/compressed.gif
/var/www/icons/compressed.png
/var/www/icons/continued.gif
/var/www/icons/continued.png
/var/www/icons/dir.gif
/var/www/icons/dir.png
/var/www/icons/diskimg.gif
/var/www/icons/diskimg.png
/var/www/icons/down.gif
/var/www/icons/down.png
/var/www/icons/dvi.gif
/var/www/icons/dvi.png
/var/www/icons/f.gif
/var/www/icons/f.png
/var/www/icons/folder.gif
/var/www/icons/folder.open.gif
/var/www/icons/folder.open.png
/var/www/icons/folder.png
/var/www/icons/folder.sec.gif
/var/www/icons/folder.sec.png
/var/www/icons/forward.gif
/var/www/icons/forward.png
/var/www/icons/generic.gif
/var/www/icons/generic.png
/var/www/icons/generic.red.gif
/var/www/icons/generic.red.png
/var/www/icons/generic.sec.gif
/var/www/icons/generic.sec.png
/var/www/icons/hand.right.gif
/var/www/icons/hand.right.png
/var/www/icons/hand.up.gif
/var/www/icons/hand.up.png
/var/www/icons/icon.sheet.gif
/var/www/icons/icon.sheet.png
/var/www/icons/image1.gif
/var/www/icons/image1.png
/var/www/icons/image2.gif
/var/www/icons/image2.png
/var/www/icons/image3.gif
/var/www/icons/image3.png
/var/www/icons/index.gif
/var/www/icons/index.png
/var/www/icons/layout.gif
/var/www/icons/layout.png
/var/www/icons/left.gif
/var/www/icons/left.png
/var/www/icons/link.gif
/var/www/icons/link.png
/var/www/icons/movie.gif
/var/www/icons/movie.png
/var/www/icons/p.gif
/var/www/icons/p.png
/var/www/icons/patch.gif
/var/www/icons/patch.png
/var/www/icons/pdf.gif
/var/www/icons/pdf.png
/var/www/icons/pie0.gif
/var/www/icons/pie0.png
/var/www/icons/pie1.gif
/var/www/icons/pie1.png
/var/www/icons/pie2.gif
/var/www/icons/pie2.png
/var/www/icons/pie3.gif
/var/www/icons/pie3.png
/var/www/icons/pie4.gif
/var/www/icons/pie4.png
/var/www/icons/pie5.gif
/var/www/icons/pie5.png
/var/www/icons/pie6.gif
/var/www/icons/pie6.png
/var/www/icons/pie7.gif
/var/www/icons/pie7.png
/var/www/icons/pie8.gif
/var/www/icons/pie8.png
/var/www/icons/portal.gif
/var/www/icons/portal.png
/var/www/icons/poweredby.png
/var/www/icons/ps.gif
/var/www/icons/ps.png
/var/www/icons/quill.gif
/var/www/icons/quill.png
/var/www/icons/right.gif
/var/www/icons/right.png
/var/www/icons/screw1.gif
/var/www/icons/screw1.png
/var/www/icons/screw2.gif
/var/www/icons/screw2.png
/var/www/icons/script.gif
/var/www/icons/script.png
/var/www/icons/small
/var/www/icons/small/back.gif
/var/www/icons/small/back.png
/var/www/icons/small/binary.gif
/var/www/icons/small/binary.png
/var/www/icons/small/binhex.gif
/var/www/icons/small/binhex.png
/var/www/icons/small/blank.gif
/var/www/icons/small/blank.png
/var/www/icons/small/broken.gif
/var/www/icons/small/broken.png
/var/www/icons/small/burst.gif
/var/www/icons/small/burst.png
/var/www/icons/small/comp1.gif
/var/www/icons/small/comp1.png
/var/www/icons/small/comp2.gif
/var/www/icons/small/comp2.png
/var/www/icons/small/compressed.gif
/var/www/icons/small/compressed.png
/var/www/icons/small/continued.gif
/var/www/icons/small/continued.png
/var/www/icons/small/dir.gif
/var/www/icons/small/dir.png
/var/www/icons/small/dir2.gif
/var/www/icons/small/dir2.png
/var/www/icons/small/doc.gif
/var/www/icons/small/doc.png
/var/www/icons/small/forward.gif
/var/www/icons/small/forward.png
/var/www/icons/small/generic.gif
/var/www/icons/small/generic.png
/var/www/icons/small/generic2.gif
/var/www/icons/small/generic2.png
/var/www/icons/small/generic3.gif
/var/www/icons/small/generic3.png
/var/www/icons/small/image.gif
/var/www/icons/small/image.png
/var/www/icons/small/image2.gif
/var/www/icons/small/image2.png
/var/www/icons/small/index.gif
/var/www/icons/small/index.png
/var/www/icons/small/key.gif
/var/www/icons/small/key.png
/var/www/icons/small/movie.gif
/var/www/icons/small/movie.png
/var/www/icons/small/patch.gif
/var/www/icons/small/patch.png
/var/www/icons/small/ps.gif
/var/www/icons/small/ps.png
/var/www/icons/small/rainbow.gif
/var/www/icons/small/rainbow.png
/var/www/icons/small/sound.gif
/var/www/icons/small/sound.png
/var/www/icons/small/sound2.gif
/var/www/icons/small/sound2.png
/var/www/icons/small/tar.gif
/var/www/icons/small/tar.png
/var/www/icons/small/text.gif
/var/www/icons/small/text.png
/var/www/icons/small/transfer.gif
/var/www/icons/small/transfer.png
/var/www/icons/small/unknown.gif
/var/www/icons/small/unknown.png
/var/www/icons/small/uu.gif
/var/www/icons/small/uu.png
/var/www/icons/sound1.gif
/var/www/icons/sound1.png
/var/www/icons/sound2.gif
/var/www/icons/sound2.png
/var/www/icons/sphere1.gif
/var/www/icons/sphere1.png
/var/www/icons/sphere2.gif
/var/www/icons/sphere2.png
/var/www/icons/tar.gif
/var/www/icons/tar.png
/var/www/icons/tex.gif
/var/www/icons/tex.png
/var/www/icons/text.gif
/var/www/icons/text.png
/var/www/icons/transfer.gif
/var/www/icons/transfer.png
/var/www/icons/unknown.gif
/var/www/icons/unknown.png
/var/www/icons/up.gif
/var/www/icons/up.png
/var/www/icons/uu.gif
/var/www/icons/uu.png
/var/www/icons/uuencoded.gif
/var/www/icons/uuencoded.png
/var/www/icons/world1.gif
/var/www/icons/world1.png
/var/www/icons/world2.gif
/var/www/icons/world2.png

httpd-tools

Diverse Tools rund um den Apache-Server werden uns im RPM httpd-tools mitgeliefert, dessen Inhakt wir uns mit dem folgenden Aufruf anzeigen lassen können.

# rpm -qil httpd-tools
Name        : httpd-tools                  Relocations: (not relocatable)
Version     : 2.2.15                            Vendor: CentOS
Release     : 5.el6.centos                  Build Date: Do 07 Jul 2011 12:28:56 CEST
Install Date: Fr 09 Sep 2011 20:16:26 CEST      Build Host: c6b6.bsys.dev.centos.org
Group       : System Environment/Daemons    Source RPM: httpd-2.2.15-5.el6.centos.src.rpm
Size        : 131365                           License: ASL 2.0
Signature   : RSA/8, Do 07 Jul 2011 13:50:22 CEST, Key ID 0946fca2c105b9de
Packager    : CentOS BuildSystem <http://bugs.centos.org>
URL         : http://httpd.apache.org/
Summary     : Tools for use with the Apache HTTP Server
Description :
The httpd-tools package contains tools which can be used with
the Apache HTTP Server.
/usr/bin/ab
/usr/bin/htdbm
/usr/bin/htdigest
/usr/bin/htpasswd
/usr/bin/logresolve
/usr/share/doc/httpd-tools-2.2.15
/usr/share/doc/httpd-tools-2.2.15/LICENSE
/usr/share/man/man1/ab.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/htdbm.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/htdigest.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/htpasswd.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/logresolve.1.gz

Paketfilter anpassen

Damit nun auf unserem Web-Server auch Anfragen auf Port 80 auch zugelassen werden, passen wir noch die iptables-Filterregeln auf unserem System an.

Wir überprüfen also erst einmal die Paketfiltereinstellungen

 # iptables -L
Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         
ACCEPT     all  --  anywhere             anywhere            state RELATED,ESTABLISHED 
ACCEPT     icmp --  anywhere             anywhere            
ACCEPT     all  --  anywhere             anywhere            
ACCEPT     tcp  --  anywhere             anywhere            state NEW tcp dpt:ssh 
REJECT     all  --  anywhere             anywhere            reject-with icmp-host-prohibited 
 
Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         
REJECT     all  --  anywhere             anywhere            reject-with icmp-host-prohibited 
 
Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)

Für den Squid-Proxyserver, der auf Port 3128 lauschen wird, tragen wir also eine passende Regel in der Konfigurationsdatei des Paketfilters iptables ein.

 # vim /etc/sysconfig/iptables
/etc/sysconfig/iptables
# Firewall configuration written by system-config-firewall
# Manual customization of this file is not recommended.
*filter
:INPUT ACCEPT [0:0]
:FORWARD ACCEPT [0:0]
:OUTPUT ACCEPT [0:0]
-A INPUT -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -p icmp -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT
# Django : 2011-11-16 htpp für Apache Webserver freigeschaltet
-A INPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT
#
-A INPUT -j REJECT --reject-with icmp-host-prohibited
-A FORWARD -j REJECT --reject-with icmp-host-prohibited
COMMIT

Anschließend aktivieren wir die neue Regel, indem wir den Service iptables einmal durchstarten.

 # service iptables restart
 iptables: Flushing firewall rules:                         [  OK  ]
 iptables: Setting chains to policy ACCEPT: filter          [  OK  ]
 iptables: Unloading modules:                               [  OK  ]
 iptables: Applying firewall rules:                         [  OK  ]

Eine erneute Abfrage der Paketfilterregeln zeigt uns nun die neue Einstellung.

 # iptables -L
Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         
ACCEPT     all  --  anywhere             anywhere            state RELATED,ESTABLISHED 
ACCEPT     icmp --  anywhere             anywhere            
ACCEPT     all  --  anywhere             anywhere            
ACCEPT     tcp  --  anywhere             anywhere            state NEW tcp dpt:ssh 
ACCEPT     tcp  --  anywhere             anywhere            state NEW tcp dpt:http 
REJECT     all  --  anywhere             anywhere            reject-with icmp-host-prohibited 
 
Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         
REJECT     all  --  anywhere             anywhere            reject-with icmp-host-prohibited 
 
Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination

manueller Systemstart

Nach erfolgter Installation der beiden Grundpakete können wir unseren Webserver das erste mal anstarten:

# service httpd start

Im Verzeichnis /var/log/httpd/ finden wir zwei Logfiles:

  • access.log Hier werden die Zugriffe geloggt.
  • error.log Im Fehlerfall finden wir in dieser Logdatei meist wertvolle Hinweise über weitere

automatischer Systemstart

Damit der Server bei einem Systemstart des Rechner auch automatisch mitgestartet wird, aktivieren wir gleich noch das Startupscript im Verzeichnis /etc/init.d/

# chkconfig httpd on

Bei Bedarf können wir auch abfragen ob die Verlinkungen zum automatischen Systemstart passend gesetzt wurden.

# chkconfig --list | grep httpd
httpd          	0:Aus	1:Aus	2:Ein	3:Ein	4:Ein	5:Ein	6:Aus

Links

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  • centos/webserver/install.txt
  • Zuletzt geändert: 20.04.2018 10:27.
  • (Externe Bearbeitung)